Born in Lisbon in 1798, Dom Pedro I was the founder and first ruler of the Empire of Brazil. Later as Petro IV of Portugal, he reigned briefly in 1826 before abdicating his throne to his eldest daughter, Dona Maria II. But then her throne was usurped by Prince Don Miguel, Pedro I’s younger brother (and I imagine, Maria’s uncle).
Pedro I invaded Portugal at the head of an army in July 1832, he ended up involved in a conflict that took over the entire Iberian Peninsula in a struggle between proponents of Liberalism and those seeking a return to Absolutism. Unfortunately, he died of tuberculosis shortly after he and the liberals were victorious. He was hailed by contemporaries and by posterity as a key figure who helped spread the liberal ideals that allowed Brazil and Portugal to move to representative forms of government.
This equestrian statue of Dom Pedro IV features him holding a document in his right hand. It symbolizes the new national charter of representative government.
Link: Monumento a Dom Pedro IV